The Five Big Ideas of Reading
Means knowing that spoken words are made up of smaller parts called phonemes. Teaching phonemic awareness gives children a basic foundation that helps them learn to read and spell.
Phonics teaches students about the relationship between phonemes and printed letters and explains how to use this knowledge to read and spell.
Fluency means being able to read quickly, knowing what the words are and what they mean, and properly expressing certain words - putting the right feeling, emotion, or emphasis on the right word or phrase. Teaching fluency includes guided oral reading, in which students read out loud to someone who corrects their mistakes and provides them with feedback, and independent silent reading where students read silently to themselves.
Teaches specific plans or strategies students can use to help them understand what they are reading.
Teaches students how to recognize words and understand them.
Information borrowed from: University of Oregon Center of Teaching and Learning